Site updated at Thursday, 03 January 2019

Health - Severe Hypertension

Measurement of Blood Pressure

Saturday, Dec 22 2007

  

Diagnosis and monitoring of treatment of essential hypertension require the accurate repeated measurement of blood pressure. Although on the surface it may seem that measuring blood pressure is simple, many factors need to be considered when obtaining measures of blood pressure for purposes of diagnosing and monitoring essential hypertension.

For example, arterial pressure differs depending upon the specific site of the arterial bed from which the measure is obtained; the closer the location is to the heart, the higher the blood pressure. Body position greatly affects blood pressure measurement, as does ingestion of a variety of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and a whole range of prescription and over-the-counter medications.

To complicate matters further, blood pressure is a dynamic parameter, forever changing as the organism adapts to altering environmental contexts like noise level, temperature, and presence of interpersonal confrontation; therefore, a single blood pressure assessment will never really provide much useful information. In addition, although numerous manual and automated devices have been developed to measure blood pressures accurately, correspondence of blood pressure values among these devices is not always exact. Let’s examine some of the primary methods employed to measure blood pressure.

Larkin, K. T., and Zayfert, C.
Published with assistance from the foundation established in memory of Amasa Stone Mather of the Class of 1907, Yale College.

References
  • Abel, J. A., and Larkin, K. T. (1991). Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity across laboratory and natural settings. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 35, 365 - 373.
  • Achmon, J., Granek, M., Golomb, M., and Hart, J. (1989). Behavioral treatment of essential hypertension: A comparison between cognitive therapy and biofeedback of heart rate. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 152 - 164.
  • Agras, W. S., Horne, M., and Taylor, C. B. (1982). Expectation and the blood-pressure-lowering effects of relaxation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 389 - 395.
  • Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. C., Southam, M. A., and Schneider, J. A. (1987). Relaxation training for essential hypertension at the worksite: II. The poorly controlled hypertensive. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 264 - 273.
  • Aivazyan, T. A., Zaitsev, V. P., Khramelashvili, V. V., Golenov, E. V., and Kichkin, V. I. (1988). Psychophysiological interrelations and reactivity characteristics in hypertensives. Health Psychology, 7, 137 - 144.
  • al'Absi, M., and Wittmers, L. E. (2003). Enhanced adrenocortical responses to stress in hypertension-prone men and women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 52 - 33.
  • Albright, C. L., Winkleby, M. A., Ragland, D. R., Fisher, J., and Syme, S. L. (1992). Job strain and prevalence of hypertension in a biracial population of urban bus drivers. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 984 - 989.
  • Davidyan, A. (1989). Emotional factors in essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 505 - 517.
  • Alfredsson, L., Davidyan, A., Fransson, E., de Faire, U., Hallqvist, J., Knutsson, A., et al. (2002). Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease among employed males and females in a Swedish study on work, lipids, and fibrinogen. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 28, 238 - 248.
Revision date: March 20, 2010
Last revised: by Dr. J. Gregory Frits, , M.D.

Provided by Armina Hypertension Association

Post a comment [ + Comment here + ]

There are no comments for this entry yet. [ + Comment here + ]




Comment
Your details

* Required field


Please enter the word you see in the image below:

Comments are moderated by our editors, so there may be a delay between submission and publication of your comment. Offensive or abusive comments will not be published.