Measurement of Hemodynamic Functioning
Saturday, Dec 22 2007
As outlined in Figure 1.1, blood pressure is jointly determined by cardiac output and total peripheral resistance. To answer several types of empirical questions relating to blood pressure, it is necessary to obtain corresponding measures of cardiac output or total peripheral resistance, the so-called parameters of hemodynamic functioning. Unfortunately, hemodynamic parameters are not convenient to measure.
The primary strategy for measuring cardiac output involves insertion of catheters into locations proximal to the heart so that dye can be injected into the right atrium of the heart and then detected as it is ejected from the left ventricle over a period of time. Obviously, this procedure is not easily conducted in clinical practice, nor can it be used for large-scale epidemiologic trials. Because total peripheral resistance reflects resistance to blood flow throughout the entire body, there is no known procedure for measuring it directly; however, it can be measured indirectly by dividing mean arterial pressure by cardiac output.
Although it may appear that reliable measures of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance are too cumbersome to be of any use, impedance cardiography has enabled clinical researchers to obtain measures of hemodynamic functioning with minimal hassle.
Larkin, K. T., and Zayfert, C.
Published with assistance from the foundation established in memory of Amasa Stone Mather of the Class of 1907, Yale College.
- Abel, J. A., and Larkin, K. T. (1991). Assessment of cardiovascular reactivity across laboratory and natural settings. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 35, 365 - 373.
- Achmon, J., Granek, M., Golomb, M., and Hart, J. (1989). Behavioral treatment of essential hypertension: A comparison between cognitive therapy and biofeedback of heart rate. Psychosomatic Medicine, 51, 152 - 164.
- Agras, W. S., Horne, M., and Taylor, C. B. (1982). Expectation and the blood-pressure-lowering effects of relaxation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 44, 389 - 395.
- Agras, W. S., Taylor, C. B., Kraemer, H. C., Southam, M. A., and Schneider, J. A. (1987). Relaxation training for essential hypertension at the worksite: II. The poorly controlled hypertensive. Psychosomatic Medicine, 49, 264 - 273.
- Aivazyan, T. A., Zaitsev, V. P., Khramelashvili, V. V., Golenov, E. V., and Kichkin, V. I. (1988). Psychophysiological interrelations and reactivity characteristics in hypertensives. Health Psychology, 7, 137 - 144.
- al'Absi, M., and Wittmers, L. E. (2003). Enhanced adrenocortical responses to stress in hypertension-prone men and women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 25, 52 - 33.
- Albright, C. L., Winkleby, M. A., Ragland, D. R., Fisher, J., and Syme, S. L. (1992). Job strain and prevalence of hypertension in a biracial population of urban bus drivers. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 984 - 989.
- Davidyan, A. (1989). Emotional factors in essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 505 - 517.
- Alfredsson, L., Davidyan, A., Fransson, E., de Faire, U., Hallqvist, J., Knutsson, A., et al. (2002). Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease among employed males and females in a Swedish study on work, lipids, and fibrinogen. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 28, 238 - 248.
Last revised: by Dr. Kristen Shed, M.D.
Provided by Armina Hypertension Association
Also in this section
- Caffeine-Heavy Energy Drinks Give Jolt to Blood Glucose
- ESC: Entresto for Hypertension? Yes!
- Best and safest blood pressure treatments in kidney and diabetes patients compiled
- Adverse childhood events appear to increase the risk of being a hypertensive adult
- An antihypertensive drug improves corticosteroid-based skin treatments
- Energy drinks raise resting blood pressure
- Large study of hypertension patients highlights key moments at which to intervene
- Hydrogen sulfide could help lower blood pressure
- New Guidelines: Treat Obesity First
- Stroke Rounds: Aspirin Overused for Primary Prevention
- Understanding Dementia
- Alzheimer’s Disease Stages
Post a comment [ + Comment here + ]
There are no comments for this entry yet. [ + Comment here + ]
Comments are moderated by our editors, so there may be a delay between submission and publication of your comment. Offensive or abusive comments will not be published.